Hog Manure

Challenges

Since 1998, PDK has explored the application of NIRS to the rapid, cost-effective analysis of hog manure. Initially effort was directed to determine how well concentrations of nutrients, salts, and metals in hog manure could be predicted by NIRS. Recent R & D examined the determination of constituents when the manure is flowing as the next step towards real-time measurement of manure composition.

A list of references on the analysis of liquid manure by NIRS is available.

Project 5 (2004-2005)

Laboratory demonstration of the performance of a field-portable, in-stream, hog manure nutrient sensor prototype.

This was self-funded by PDK Projects with assistance from an industry sponsor in the U.S.

Collaborators were the Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany, and Carl Zeiss GmbH, Jena, Germany.

Purpose of the Project

This project tested a flow-though prototype cell in the laboratory using the Zeiss Corona spectrometer. Hog manure samples were collected from 11 hog operations in southern Manitoba. The testing explored the performance of the cell set to three path lengths, 3 mm, 7 mm and 13 mm. Constituents determined were density, total solids/moisture, ammonium-N, total dissolved N, suspended N, orthophosphate P, total dissolved P, suspended P, and suspended C.

EnviroSpects

Real-time hog manure nutrient sensor: Proof of concept. EnviroSpects No. 1, October 2006.  PDK Projects, Inc.

Report

Malley, D.F., P.D. Martin, and P.C. Williams. 2005. Performance of a field-portable, in-stream hog manure nutrient sensor prototype in the laboratory. PDK Projects, Inc. December. Revised June 2006. 33 pp. Executive Summary

Project 4 (November 2000- July 2001)

Study on the effectiveness of two field-portable near-infrared instruments for the measurement of metals and minor elements in hog manure.

This was funded as Project 00-02-03 by the Manitoba Livestock Manure Management Initiative Inc.

Purpose of Project

The project complements the field demonstration of the potential of two field-portable near-infrared spectrophotometers to provide on-site analysis of nutrients and several other parameters in hog manure. This project will test the effectiveness of the instruments to determine concentrations of about 28 heavy metals and minor elements that include soil micro-nutrients and potentially-hazardous metals. This analytical capability would assist in the assessment of the the fertilizer potential of hog manure and in environmental protection. The manure is this study will be analyzed for a suite of elements including Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, Ag, Sr, S, Ti, Tl, V, Sn, and Zn.

List of Productivity Related to Projects 3 and 4

Reports

2001 Malley, D.F., P.D. Martin, and L. Dettman. Analysis of nutrients in hog manure by field-portable near-infrared spectroscopy: Results for the Zeiss Corona® spectrometer. Final Report 3 of 3 to CETAC-West on Manure Demo Project. July, 17 pp. (download pdf)

2001 Malley, D.F., P.D. Martin, and L. Dettman. Analysis of minor elements and metals in hog manure by field-portable near-infrared spectroscopy: Results for the Zeiss Corona® spectrometer. Final Report 3 of 3 to Manitoba Livestock Manure Management Initiative Inc. July, 16 pp. (download pdf)

2001 Malley, D.F., P.D. Martin, and S.E. Woods. Analysis of nutrients in hog manure by field-portable near-infrared spectroscopy: Development of a mobile laboratory and results for Foss NIRSystems Inc. Model 6500 spectrophotometer in the laboratory. Final Report 1 of 3 to CETAC-West on Manure Demo Project. July, 33 pp. (download pdf)

2001 Malley, D.F., P.D. Martin, S.E. Woods, and L. Dettman. Analysis of minor elements and metals in hog manure by field-portable near-infrared spectroscopy: Results for Foss NIRSystems Inc. model 6500 spectrophotometer in the laboratory. Final Report 1 of 3 to Manitoba Livestock Manure Management Initiative Inc., July, 35 pp. (download pdf)

Posters

2001 Malley, D.F. and P.D. Martin. Variability in the nutrient, metal,and minor element composition of hog manure over the pump-out cycle of several manure stores in Manitoba. Poster presented at Livestock Options for the Future conference, 25 - 27 June 2001, Winnipeg MB. (download pdf)

2001 Martin, P.D. and D.F. Malley. Demonstration mobile laboratory built for on-site testing of manure nutrient content. Poster presented at Livestock Options for the Future conference, 25 - 27 June 2001, Winnipeg MB. (download pdf)

Mobile Truck Lab (opens in a new window)

Lagoon Sampler (opens in a new window)

Project 3 (August 2000 - July 2001)

Field testing of applicability of two portable near-infrared spectrophotometers for on-site measurement of composition of hog manure.

Funded by CETAC-West through its Hog Manure Management Initiative that is supported by the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) for Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) funding and by Western Economic Diversification.

Purpose of Project

The project is to develop a field protocol for testing two field-portable near-infrared spectrophotometers as free-standing, on-site measurement tools for analyzing hog manure, and then to evaluate the analytical results for newly-collected manure from the field-portable NIR instruments with results from hand-held gas gauges and from a standard laboratory NIR instrument. The manure is this study will be analyzed for:

Reports (see project 4)

Project 2

Feasibility study on the rapid compositional analysis of hog manure by near-infrared spectroscopy.

Funded as Project 99-01-25 by the Manitoba Livestock Manure Management Initiative Inc.

Purpose of Project

The study explored the feasibility of using NIRS to determine the following in hog manure:

% moisture, electrical conductivity, NH4-N, N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, and a suite of elements including Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, Ag, Sr, S, Ti, Tl, V, Sn, and Zn.

Report

Malley, D.F. and L. Vandenbyllaardt in collaboration with G. Racz, M. Fitzgerald, G. Plohman, and J. Hicks. 1999. Feasibility study on the rapid compositional analysis of hog manure by near-infrared spectroscopy. Report to The Manitoba Livestock Manure Management Initiative Inc. August, 28 pp. (Download pdf)

Abstract

This study addressed one of the key steps in applying hog manure to farmland in an agronomically-appropriate and environmentally-sound way, that is, knowing the nutrient content of the manure and of the receiving soil. Specifically, this study explored the feasibility of applying near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid method for the analysis of nutrients and salts in hog manure from seven ponds in south-central Manitoba representing several stages of hog production.

Manure was analyzed for NO3-N, NH4-N, total dissolved N, suspended N, soluble reactive P, total dissolved P, suspended P, suspended C, Na, K, Ca, Mg, conductivity, and pH. Spectral data in the near-infrared area of the electromagnetic spectrum (750-2500 nm) were recorded on the samples. Using complex statistics, relationships, termed calibrations, were developed for each constituent between the spectral data and the analytical data. Coefficient of determination, r2, between NIR-predicted concentrations and the concentrations determined by chemical analysis for the samples in this study were 0.95 to 0.99 for NH4-N, total dissolved N, suspended N, soluble reactive P, total dissolved P, suspended P, suspended C, Na, and Mg. For K, Ca, conductivity, and pH, r2 were > 0.8.

Soil samples were collected before, immediately after, and a few days after the application of manure. Soil was scanned by NIR in a field moist state and again after drying and grinding for chemical analysis. Soils were analyzed for % moisture, % organic matter, % N, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, SO4-S, K, Na, Ca, and Mg. Calibrations achieved for soil were generally less good than for the manure., nevertheless that for % N was useful, with r2 around 0.9 for both field moist and dried soil.

These results indicate that NIRS has the potential to be used to predict the nutrient and salt composition of manure samples with no sample preparation, rapidly (<2 min), and non-destructively. It appears to be useful also for the prediction of % N and several other constituents in field moist or dried soil.

Project 1

Feasibility study on the rapid analysis of available N and P in hog manure and manure-amended soils by near-infrared spectroscopy.

Funded as Project 98-01-15 by the Manitoba Livestock Manure Management Initiative Inc., and by Canada through the National Soil and Water Conservation Program (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada - PFRA)

Purpose of Project

The study explored the feasibility of using NIRS to determine the following in hog manure:

This study also explored the feasibility of using NIRS to determine these constituents in soil before and after amendment with the hog manure.

Report

Malley, D.F. and R.S. Currie. 1999. Feasibility study on the rapid analysis of available N and P in hog manure and manure-amended soils by near-infrared spectroscopy. Report to The Manitoba Livestock Manure Management Initiative Inc. and The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. March, 36 pp.(Download pdf)

Abstract

This study added a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) dimension to a study underway funded by the Agricultural Research Development Initiative on long-term effects of hog manure on soil quality and productivity. The present study utilized samples of hog manure collected and analyzed by Norwest Labs in the summer and fall of 1998 to expand knowledge of the applicability of NIRS for the rapid analysis of hog manure.

The present study expanded on the MLMMI Project 98-01-15 reported by Malley and Currie (1999) in three ways. Firstly, it repeated exploration of the feasibility of developing useful NIR calibrations for nutrients, N, P, and K in hog manure. Secondly, it expanded the sources of variability in the sample set from 7 to 25 hog manure ponds. Thirdly, it greatly expanded the constituents examined from physical parameters, nutrients and salts to include 27 metals and minor elements.

The 75 samples in this study were analyzed by Norwest Lab for % moisture, electrical conductivity, NH4-N, N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, and a suite of elements including Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, Ag, Sr, S, Ti, Tl, V, Sn, and Zn. The elements were determined by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Because the samples were stored for several months before being scanned by NIRS, they were re-analyzed in the Freshwater Institute Analytical Laboratory for NH4-N, total dissolved N, suspended N, total dissolved P, soluble reactive P, suspended P, and suspended C.

Samples were scanned using a Foss NIRSystems Inc. Model 6500 visible and near-infrared scanning spectrophotometer from 400 to 2500 nm using Near-infrared Spectroscopic Analysis Software (NSAS). Samples were scanned in a watertight cell with a path length of 2 mm in the transflectance mode. The cell was scanned in a static mode and in a spinning cup module. Calibrations were developed between the spectral data and the chemical data for each constituent using the multiple linear regression option of the NSAS software and evaluated statistically.

Useful calibrations were developed for NH4-N, TDN, Suspended N, Total N, TDP, SRP, Suspended P, Total P, Suspended C, Ca, Mg, Ba, Be Cd, Cu, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, S, Ti, V, and Zn. Useful results were not obtained for Na, K, Cl, Al, As, B, and Li. The calibrations developed for the nutrients and salts were not good as achieved by Malley and Currie (1999). The difference was attributed to the greater variability in the samples in this study, representing 25 ponds compared with 7 ponds in the earlier study.

Analysis of the constituent and spectral data by Principal Component Analysis demonstrated that this may be a useful tool for sample selection for the development of future robust calibrations for field use.